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Image:UDP encapsulation.svg

The steps of encapsulation are:

  1. Upper layers (Application, Presentation and Session) convert the message to data and send it to the Transport layer.
  2. The Transport layer converts the data to segments and sends it down to the Network layer.
  3. The Network layer converts the segments to packets and sends them to the Data Link layer.
  4. The Data Link layer converts the packets to frames and sends them to the Physical layer.
  5. The Physical layer converts the frames to 1's and 0's (electrical signals) and sends them across the network.

At each layer, header information is added. At the receiving end, the process is reversed, with headers being stripped off at each layer. This reverse process is known as de-encapsulation.

Next: Protocols and Routing